Human Rights Due Diligence in Supply Chain Contracts: Legal Frameworks

Human rights due diligence is a crucial aspect of supply chain contracts, ensuring that companies uphold and respect human rights throughout their operations. This article explores the legal frameworks surrounding human rights due diligence in supply chains, highlighting the importance of identifying and addressing human rights risks. It also examines the key elements of human rights due diligence and the challenges faced in implementing effective measures. Through case studies and recommendations, this article aims to encourage companies to prioritise human rights in their supply chain contracts and envision a future where human rights are safeguarded at every level of the supply chain.


Definition of human rights due diligence: Human rights due diligence refers to the process of identifying, preventing, mitigating, and accounting for the potential adverse human rights impacts of a company’s activities. It involves assessing the actual and potential human rights risks associated with a company’s operations, products, and services, and taking appropriate measures to address those risks. Human rights due diligence is based on the recognition that companies have a responsibility to respect human rights and that they can have both positive and negative impacts on human rights.

Importance of human rights due diligence in supply chains: Human rights due diligence is particularly important in supply chains, where companies often have limited visibility and control over the conditions under which their products are made. Supply chains can involve multiple tiers of suppliers, subcontractors, and other business partners, making it difficult for companies to ensure that human rights are respected throughout the entire chain. Human rights due diligence in supply chains helps companies identify and address potential human rights risks, such as forced labor, child labor, discrimination, and unsafe working conditions. It also enables companies to work with their suppliers and business partners to improve human rights practices and promote responsible business conduct.

Overview of legal frameworks for human rights due diligence: There are various legal frameworks that require or encourage companies to conduct human rights due diligence. These frameworks include international standards, such as the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, which outline the corporate responsibility to respect human rights and provide guidance on how to implement human rights due diligence. Some countries have also introduced legislation that requires companies to conduct human rights due diligence, such as the Modern Slavery Act in the United Kingdom. In addition, there are industry-specific initiatives and voluntary standards that provide guidance on human rights due diligence in specific sectors, such as the Responsible Jewellery Council’s Chain of Custody Certification for the jewelry industry.

Legal Frameworks for Human Rights Due Diligence

International legal frameworks: International legal frameworks for human rights due diligence refer to the set of laws, treaties, and agreements that establish the obligations of states and other actors at the international level to conduct due diligence to protect and promote human rights. These frameworks include universal human rights instruments such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. They also encompass regional human rights treaties and conventions, such as the European Convention on Human Rights and the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights. These international legal frameworks provide a basis for states and other actors to ensure that their activities do not violate human rights and to take appropriate measures to prevent, mitigate, and remedy any adverse human rights impacts that may arise from their operations.

National legal frameworks: National legal frameworks for human rights due diligence refer to the laws, regulations, and policies enacted by individual countries to implement and enforce human rights standards within their jurisdictions. These frameworks vary from country to country but generally include constitutional provisions, labor laws, environmental laws, and corporate governance regulations that require businesses and other entities to respect human rights. National legal frameworks also establish mechanisms for monitoring and enforcing compliance with human rights standards, such as national human rights institutions, labor inspectorates, and environmental protection agencies. These frameworks play a crucial role in ensuring that businesses and other actors operating within a country’s jurisdiction conduct due diligence to identify, prevent, and address any adverse human rights impacts associated with their activities.

Industry-specific legal frameworks: Industry-specific legal frameworks for human rights due diligence refer to the laws, regulations, and standards that are specific to particular industries or sectors and require businesses operating in those industries to conduct due diligence to address human rights risks and impacts. These frameworks recognise that certain industries, such as extractive industries, apparel manufacturing, and electronics production, may have a higher risk of human rights abuses and therefore require specific measures to prevent and mitigate these risks. Industry-specific legal frameworks often include codes of conduct, certification schemes, and reporting requirements that oblige businesses to assess and address human rights risks throughout their supply chains. These frameworks aim to ensure that businesses operating in high-risk industries take responsibility for the human rights impacts of their operations and take appropriate measures to prevent and remedy any abuses that may occur.

Key Elements of Human Rights Due Diligence

Identifying and assessing human rights risks: Identifying and assessing human rights risks refers to the process of identifying potential human rights violations or risks within a company’s operations, supply chains, or business relationships. This involves conducting thorough assessments and audits to identify areas where human rights may be at risk, such as forced labor, child labor, discrimination, or unsafe working conditions. By identifying these risks, companies can take proactive measures to prevent and address human rights abuses.

Integrating human rights into supply chain contracts: Integrating human rights into supply chain contracts involves incorporating human rights clauses or requirements into contracts with suppliers, contractors, or business partners. These clauses may include provisions that require suppliers to comply with international human rights standards, prohibit the use of forced labor or child labor, or ensure fair and safe working conditions. By integrating human rights into supply chain contracts, companies can hold their suppliers accountable for respecting human rights and create a framework for addressing any violations that may occur.

Monitoring and remediation mechanisms: Monitoring and remediation mechanisms are essential for ensuring ongoing compliance with human rights standards. This involves implementing systems to monitor and track human rights performance throughout the supply chain, including regular audits, inspections, and assessments. If human rights violations are identified, companies should have mechanisms in place to take appropriate remedial actions, such as working with suppliers to address the issues, providing remedies to affected individuals, or, if necessary, terminating relationships with non-compliant suppliers. Monitoring and remediation mechanisms help companies identify and address human rights violations in a timely and effective manner.

Challenges and Limitations

Lack of enforcement mechanisms: The lack of enforcement mechanisms is a significant challenge in various areas, including international agreements and regulations. Without effective enforcement mechanisms, it becomes difficult to ensure compliance with agreed-upon rules and standards. This can lead to non-compliance, violations, and the undermining of the intended outcomes of these agreements. It also creates a sense of unfairness and inequality among participants, as some may choose to disregard the rules while others adhere to them. Additionally, the lack of enforcement mechanisms can hinder the ability to address issues such as human rights violations, environmental degradation, and unethical practices in global supply chains.

Complexity of global supply chains: The complexity of global supply chains poses numerous challenges and limitations. As supply chains become increasingly globalised, they involve multiple stakeholders, including suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, and retailers, spread across different countries and regions. This complexity makes it difficult to trace and monitor the movement of goods, ensuring compliance with regulations, and identifying potential risks or vulnerabilities. It also increases the likelihood of disruptions, such as delays, quality issues, and supply chain failures. Managing and coordinating these complex supply chains require significant resources, expertise, and coordination among various parties, which can be challenging to achieve.

Limited transparency and accountability: Limited transparency and accountability are significant limitations in various contexts, including governance, business practices, and social issues. Without transparency, it becomes challenging to assess the actions and decisions of individuals, organisations, or governments. This lack of visibility can lead to a lack of trust, suspicion, and the potential for corruption or unethical behaviour. Limited accountability further exacerbates these issues, as there may be no consequences or repercussions for actions that harm others or violate established norms. Limited transparency and accountability can hinder progress, impede justice, and create an environment of uncertainty and mistrust.

Recommendations for Improving Human Rights Due Diligence

Strengthening legal frameworks: Strengthening legal frameworks is crucial for improving human rights due diligence. This involves enacting and enforcing laws that protect human rights, such as labor rights, freedom of expression, and the right to privacy. It also includes establishing mechanisms for holding individuals and organisations accountable for human rights violations. By strengthening legal frameworks, governments can create a more conducive environment for respecting and promoting human rights.

Enhancing collaboration between stakeholders: Enhancing collaboration between stakeholders is another important recommendation for improving human rights due diligence. This involves fostering partnerships and cooperation between governments, businesses, civil society organisations, and other relevant actors. By working together, these stakeholders can share information, resources, and expertise to address human rights challenges more effectively. Collaboration can also help identify and address gaps in human rights due diligence processes, ensuring a more comprehensive and coordinated approach.

Increasing transparency and reporting: Increasing transparency and reporting is essential for improving human rights due diligence. This includes promoting transparency in supply chains, business operations, and government actions. It also involves encouraging companies and governments to regularly report on their human rights practices and impacts. By increasing transparency and reporting, stakeholders can better understand the human rights risks and impacts associated with their activities, and take appropriate measures to address them. Transparency and reporting also enable greater accountability and public scrutiny, which can help prevent and address human rights abuses.


In conclusion, human rights due diligence in supply chain contracts is crucial for ensuring the protection of human rights throughout global supply chains. By implementing robust legal frameworks, integrating human rights into contracts, and establishing monitoring and remediation mechanisms, companies can mitigate risks and uphold their responsibility to respect human rights. However, challenges such as the lack of enforcement mechanisms and limited transparency and accountability must be addressed. It is imperative for companies to prioritise human rights, strengthen legal frameworks, enhance collaboration, and increase transparency and reporting. Only through these collective efforts can we envision a future where human rights are respected and upheld in every aspect of supply chain operations.

*Disclaimer: This website copy is for informational purposes only and does not constitute legal advice. For legal advice, book an initial consultation with our commercial solicitors HERE.

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