The Legal Process of Trademark Opposition

Trademark opposition is a crucial aspect of intellectual property law that ensures only distinctive and non-conflicting trademarks are granted protection. In the United Kingdom, the process of trademark opposition is governed by the UK Intellectual Property Office (UKIPO). This article delves into the legal framework, procedural steps, and strategic considerations involved in the trademark opposition process in the UK, providing a comprehensive guide for businesses, legal practitioners, and individuals interested in safeguarding their trademarks.

Understanding Trademarks and Their Importance

A trademark is a sign capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one enterprise from those of other enterprises. Trademarks are essential for businesses as they build brand identity and customer loyalty. A strong trademark can be a valuable asset, often representing a significant portion of a company’s value. However, the strength of a trademark depends on its distinctiveness and the ability to protect it from unauthorised use or infringement.

The Trademark Registration Process in the UK

Before delving into the opposition process, it is essential to understand the trademark registration procedure in the UK. The process begins with an application submitted to the UKIPO. This application undergoes examination to ensure it complies with formal requirements and does not conflict with existing trademarks. If the application passes this examination, it is published in the Trade Marks Journal, opening the door for opposition.

Grounds for Opposition

Opposition to a trademark application can be based on several grounds, categorised broadly into absolute and relative grounds. Absolute grounds relate to the inherent characteristics of the trademark, such as lack of distinctiveness, descriptiveness, or generic nature. Relative grounds, on the other hand, pertain to conflicts with earlier rights, such as existing trademarks, unregistered marks with significant reputation, or even domain names.

Filing an Opposition

Any party can oppose a trademark application within two months from the date of its publication in the Trade Marks Journal. This period can be extended by one month if a request for an extension is filed. The opposition process begins with the filing of a notice of opposition using Form TM7. This form requires detailed information about the opposing party, the grounds for opposition, and supporting evidence.

Step-by-Step Procedure

  1. Notice of Opposition (Form TM7): The opposing party submits Form TM7, outlining the grounds for opposition and providing evidence to support their claims. The fee for filing this form must also be paid at this stage.
  2. Counter-Statement (Form TM8): Once the opposition is filed, the applicant has two months to respond by filing a counter-statement using Form TM8. This form allows the applicant to address the claims made by the opponent and provide their own evidence.
  3. Evidence Rounds: Following the counter-statement, both parties enter a period of evidence submission. The opponent submits their evidence first, followed by the applicant’s evidence in response. The opponent may then submit additional evidence to address the applicant’s response.
  4. Decision by the UKIPO: After the evidence rounds, the UKIPO examines the submissions and issues a decision. This decision may uphold the opposition, reject it, or find a middle ground, such as restricting the scope of the trademark application.

Key Considerations in the Opposition Process

1. Strong Evidence: The success of an opposition largely depends on the strength and relevance of the evidence provided. This includes documents, witness statements, market surveys, and any other material that supports the claims of confusion, likelihood of association, or damage to reputation.

2. Legal Representation: While individuals and businesses can represent themselves, engaging a trademark attorney or solicitor with expertise in intellectual property law is highly recommended. They can provide strategic advice, draft persuasive arguments, and ensure compliance with procedural requirements.

3. Timing: The opposition process is time-sensitive, with strict deadlines for each stage. Missing a deadline can result in the loss of the right to oppose or defend the application. Therefore, timely action and diligent monitoring of deadlines are crucial.

Strategic Use of Trademark Opposition

1. Protecting Brand Integrity: Opposition is a proactive measure to prevent the dilution or tarnishing of a brand by similar or misleading trademarks. It helps maintain the distinctiveness and exclusivity of a trademark.

2. Market Positioning: For businesses, opposing a competitor’s trademark can be a strategic move to limit their market entry or expansion. It can be a tool to protect market share and competitive advantage.

3. Negotiation and Settlement: Often, the opposition process leads to negotiations between the parties. Settlements can result in coexistence agreements, licensing arrangements, or modifications to the trademark application that address the concerns of both parties.

Case Studies: Landmark Trademark Oppositions in the UK

Examining landmark cases provides insight into how the opposition process works in practice and highlights key principles applied by the UKIPO and courts. Two notable cases are:

1. Sky v. SkyKick

This case revolved around the breadth of trademark specifications and the issue of bad faith. Sky opposed SkyKick’s trademark applications, arguing that they infringed on its earlier marks. The case raised questions about overly broad trademark claims and their validity. The court ruled that while some of Sky’s trademarks were too broad, SkyKick’s applications were still infringing. This case underscores the importance of precise trademark specifications and honest intent in trademark applications.

2. Specsavers v. Asda

Specsavers opposed Asda’s use of a logo and slogan, claiming they were confusingly similar to its own marks. The case involved complex issues of visual and conceptual similarity. The UKIPO and courts found in favour of Specsavers, highlighting the significance of both visual and conceptual factors in determining the likelihood of confusion. This case illustrates the multifaceted nature of trademark similarity assessments.

Appeals and Further Actions

If a party is dissatisfied with the UKIPO’s decision, they can appeal to the appointed person or the High Court. The appeal process involves a review of the UKIPO’s decision and may result in upholding, reversing, or remitting the decision for reconsideration. Appeals must be carefully considered, as they can be costly and time-consuming.


The trademark opposition process in the UK is a vital mechanism for maintaining the integrity and distinctiveness of trademarks. By understanding the procedural steps, grounds for opposition, and strategic considerations, businesses and individuals can effectively navigate this complex process. Whether protecting one’s own trademark or challenging a conflicting application, the opposition process plays a crucial role in the broader landscape of intellectual property rights.

Trademark law is continually evolving, and staying informed about recent developments and landmark cases is essential for anyone involved in the trademark opposition process. Through diligent preparation, strategic thinking, and professional guidance, parties can leverage the opposition process to safeguard their brand identities and uphold the principles of fair competition.

*Disclaimer: This website copy is for informational purposes only and does not constitute legal advice. For legal advice, book an initial consultation with our commercial solicitors HERE.

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